Byzantion, Nova Roma, Konstantinopolis, Stanpoli, Dersaadet and İslambol… called by many names in the past, Istanbul is a city that wins everyones heart in first sight.
The ancient legend of this old city, which has ruins even from the 600s BC, starts with the emperor Byzas, who comes from Greece. It was also Byzas, who first discovered the beauty of Istanbul before others and fell in love at the first sight with the idea of building a new city. The Emperor who enters this legendary city brings out this old and beautiful city which was hidden from everyone else’s eyes. The beauty of this city which he rules begins to spead among people.
The city which was conquered by Antonius the son of Roman Emperor Septimius Severus in a short time in the 3rd century BC is also called as Augusta Antonina. When Constantine the Great declared Istanbul the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 AD, the city was called Nova Roma, which means New Rome. With the death of Constantine I in 337, the city is started to be called as Constantinople and Istanbul becomes the city of Constantine.
The city, now the heart of the Eastern Roman Empire, is looked after and raised like a baby. The first architectural contribution to the city, a hippodrome of 100,000 people, is still in Sultanahmet Square today. But most importantly, in 360, Hagia Sophia, the most symbolic architecture of Constantinople and present-day Istanbul, was built as the largest cathedral of its time and the religion of the Roman Empire changed.
After the collapse of Western Rome in 476; The majority of Romans in the Western Roman Empire were emigrated to Constantinople and Istanbul became the capital of the Byzantine Empire. After the plague epidemic that killed half of the population in 543; The city was rebuilt during the period of Emperor Justinian I. . The city is reborn from its ashes and continues to witness every moment of history.
The city, which was attacked many times between 700 and 900 years, survived almost as an indestructible fortress and waits for the next historical step. The most devastating attack was made by the Crusaders in 1204. The Fourth Crusade resuls a large part of the people to leave this indestructible fortress. In 1261, the Latin era in Constantinople, which was in ruins, ended and the footsteps of the end of the Middle Age started to get closer.
The weakened and trapped Byzantine, started to be besieged by the Ottoman Empire and then claimed by Ottoman Empire on May 29, 1453, which was the event that ended an era. Constantinople became the capital of the Ottoman Empire with a 53-day siege and with the ships that was moved crossed mountains from land. Constantinople became Kostantiniyya in Ottoman language and used by the Ottoman Empire as the official name of the city. During this long empire period, the city continues to be known by different names. Evliya Celebi refers to the city as both Konstantiniyye and Islambol in his famous book “Seyehatname”. Konstantiniyye, also known as Dersaadet, Bab-ı Ali, Payitaht and Asitane in official correspondences, is now one of the most famous cities in the world.
During this period, the colossal Topkapi Palace, established on the shores of the historical peninsula, shows that the city is completely under the reign of Ottoman Empire. The Grand Bazaar, which is considered the first covered shopping center and the first shopping center in the world, is established here. Commercial ships coming to Sirkeci start to carry different tastes and textures from the world to the city. Constantine becomes a live and colorful city where Muslims, Jews and Christians live together. Houses on the streets are built differently, colors change and increase; cultures blend together and continues to add beauty to the city.
Many architectural structures in the city Renovated by II. Beyazıd, have survived to this date. Immediately afterwards, the mosques and other buildings of Mimar Sinan were established during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. In The 450-year-old Ottoman Empire period, Yeni Mosque, Valide Sultan Mosque, Spice Bazaar, Sultanahmet, Ortaköy Mosque, Beylerbeyi Palace, Dolmabahçe Palace, Galata Tower, Gülhane Park, Sirkeci stop of L’Orient Express make Konstatiniyye beautiful with its architecture in every way. . Bridge over the Golden Horn; with the establishment of tunnels, railways, sea transportation within the city, municipal organizations and hospital establishments, Constantinople becomes a modern metropolis.
The period of being a capitalfor 2500 years ended on October 29, 1923 and Constantinople became Istanbul. Cars come to Istanbul, a new and modern city, and Bosphorus Bridge which is the biggest icon of the city, is built to decrease the traffic. All the aspects reflecting the history of this big city are protected and museums are opened, the squares expanded and restaurants and cafes began to offer the tastes of the city. The city is divided into two continents with 39 county and becomes one of the most famous cities in the world.